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How to secure the production of Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles

The rapid growth of the electric vehicle (EV) market brings with it a major challenge: the need to increase production of battery cells, essential components of EVs.


million electric vehicles in 2023





Production under high tension

The rapid growth of the electric vehicle (EV) market brings with it a major challenge: the need to increase production of battery cells, essential components of EVs. This growing demand is due to the increase in the number of EVs worldwide, from 7 million in 2019 to around 42 million in 2023. To meet this need, Europe and the United States are investing heavily in the construction of battery “gigafactories” on their territories, to compete with the currently dominant Chinese production.

However, there are inherent risks in manufacturing Li-ion batteries. The materials used react with oxygen and humidity, generating explosive gases such as hydrogen, and dangerous gases such as hydrogen fluoride. What’s more, the use of toxic metals, notably cobalt in powder form, represents a danger to workers and the environment. One of the major problems to be solved is the formation of dendrites in battery cells, may cause thermal runaway and ignition or explosion of the battery. This phenomenon, caused by the growth of metallic structures between the electrodes,is amplified by the presence of contaminating particles during the assembly of battery components.

Safyr OPC for lion battery production security

Fine particles at stake

Safyr OPC ISO 14644

With ISO 14644, control requirements are the same as for cleanrooms

To minimize the risks associated with particle contamination and improve battery quality, cleanroom production is essential. Indeed, the presence of particles on the battery separator can encourage the formation of dendrites and cause a short-circuit, while contamination of the electrolyte reduces the battery’s capacity and service life. ISO 14644 standards define cleanroom requirements. Depending on the production stage, an ISO 5 or 6 classification is generally required for cell manufacture, while an ISO 7 or 8 classification may suffice for module and pack assembly.

Safyr OPC
The solution for real-time monitoring


ISO 14644-2 "Monitoring the maintenance of cleanroom performance for particulate air cleanliness"

real time

1 minute update frequency


Up to 168 hours of battery life


869.5 MHz / 2.4 GHz Up to 400 m range

Increase yields

Production safety

Worker safety


Complement real-time monitoring with in-depth analysis

Although real-time monitoring is essential, it does not provide information on the chemical composition of particles. For a more in-depth analysis, sampling and laboratory analysis are recommended. This makes it possible to identify the exact nature of the particles and determine their potential impact on manufacturing processes and workers’ health.
Specialized laboratories, such as TERA Environnement in France, can carry out these analyses using standardized methods. In the event of a pollution peak detected by the real-time monitoring system, additional analyses are carried out to determine the chemical composition of the particles and to take appropriate measures, such as biological monitoring of potentially exposed workers.

Tera Environnement for particule analysis

Source : Journal of Environmental Protection
Vol.07 No.10(2016), Article ID:71021
Portrait and Classification of Individual Haze Particulates

Any questions? Contact our expert.

Tera Sensor technical support

Vincent Bartolomei

Technical testing manager at Tera


The production of lithium-ion batteries, particularly for electric vehicles, poses major challenges in terms of safety and quality.

  • Risk of thermal runaway: Caused by overheating of the battery cells, thermal runaway can lead to fires and explosions, representing a major hazard.
  • Dendrite formation : The formation of dendrites, accentuated by the presence of pollutant particles, can cause short circuits and shorten battery life.
  • Particle pollution: The presence of particles in the electrolyte can also affect battery capacity and production consistency. What’s more, the use of toxic metals such as cobalt and manganese exposes workers to health risks.

Cleanrooms are controlled environments where contamination by airborne particles is minimized. They play a crucial role in the production of lithium-ion batteries by :

  • Reducing the risk of fire and explosion: By limiting the presence of particles that can aggravate the formation of dendrites, cleanrooms help minimize the risk of thermal runaway.
  • Improving battery quality: Cleanroom production controls particle contamination in the electrolyte, increasing battery capacity and life.
  • Protecting workers’ health: By maintaining a low concentration of harmful particles in the air, cleanrooms protect workers from the risk of exposure to toxic metals.

Real-time monitoring of air quality is essential to guarantee an optimal production environment in gigafactories.

  • Continuous monitoring systems: Sensors such as the Safyr OPC, using NextPM technology, enable continuous monitoring of particle concentration in the air.
  • Laboratory analysis: In the event of a pollution peak or unusual event, further laboratory analysis can be carried out to identify the chemical composition of particles and take corrective action.
  • Biological monitoring: In the event of potential exposure to toxic substances, biological monitoring of workers can be set up to assess the impact on their health and take the necessary measures.

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